Plastic & Glass Bottle Manufacturing FAQs
Are you looking for more details about the glass bottle manufacturing process? We’ve rounded up definitions to common glass bottle manufacturing terms in order to answer you’re frequently asked questions.
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Plastic & Glass Bottle Manufacturing Glossary
The rubbing and wearing away by friction of one surface by another.
A process whereby the deterioration encountered in natural aging may be accelerated and reproduced in the laboratory by heat. The goal is to predict how materials would otherwise behave at room temperature in long term storage.
(AQL) The quality level limit which represents the max number of defective units that can be present in an inspected example, beyond which the entire batch must be rejected.
The process of etching the surface of glass with hydrofluoric acid.
The finger button that, when depressed, opens the aerosol or mechanical pump dispenser valve mechanism and allows for dispensing of the product.
The plastic insert in the actuator of a spray pump with an orifice through which the product is dispensed.
A pressurized container permitting controlled dispensing of a product at the touch of a button.
Filling to a specific level in a clear package where the fill level is visible.
The visual response to the physical appearance of an object.
An integrated pump system especially suitable for products that are sensitive to environmental influences. Ideal for viscous lotions, creams, gels, treatment products, and the like.
IN glassmaking , a soluble salt consisting mainly of potassium carbonate or sodium carbonate. It is one of the essential ingredients of glass.
A small glass sealed vial which is used to contain and preserve usually a solid or liquid.
A controlled temperature method of gradually cooling glass containers in ovens or lehrs to relieve structural stresses and to make less brittle.
Electrolytic process for forming an oxide coating on aluminum for corrosion and wear resistance.
The twisting force used to apply a closure to a finished bottle. The amount of torque varies with the size of the closure.
The mixture of raw materials that is melted in a pot or tank to make glass.
A way of labeling or coding a product that allows a clear description of the contents and limits dosage mistakes. Barcodes can only be read by scanners.
The body of a deodorant stick container.
A surface coating used to improve permeation resistance and protect the container from scuffing.
The mold parts used in all glass container machines for preliminary formation of glass in preparation for completion of the glass containers in the finish mold where the bottles are blown. The blank forms the parison, hence the parison itself is at times referred to as the blank.
A unit-dose package commonly constructed from a formed cavity containing one or more individual doses.
Bloom is the result of ingredients coming out of "solution" in the component and migrating to the surface of the component. Can be seen on the surface of glass as a white scale after the glass has been aged in humidity.
Expression used to identify the production principle of the IS machine making narrow neck containers. Glass is blown into the blank mold and later blown into the finish mold.
It is the most commonly used method in glass bottle manufacturing. It is typically used for manufacturing wide-mouth bottles and jars.
The principal part of a container, usually the largest piece containing the sides. In collapsible tubes, the body (or wall) is the cylindrical portion below the shoulder extending to the bottom of the crimped end. In bottles, the body is the main portion of the bottle without the neck.
The part of the mold equipment that forms the bottom of the bottle.
That part of the mold, which contains the heel (base radius) radius and the "push-up" of the container to be formed.
The rubber or plastic squeezable component of a dropper or atomizer. What is a BUTTERFLY HINGE? Flexible hinge used in joining the cover to the main body of a flip top dispensing closure. Superior hinge for impact resistance.
The inner part of a two-piece cap.
A state in which things are able to exist or occur together without problem or conflict.
The process of molding materials under direct pressure and high temperature.
It refers to the packaging with which the customer of the brand interacts. It could be a decoration, a label, a box . The major purpose of the consumer packaging is to get the attention of the customer.
It is a type of finish found on both glass and plastic containers where the threads are wrapped around the neck of the container continuously.
Plastic cap used to protect a dispenser from accidental actuation and contamination. Also used to protect the point of a lip-eye pencil or lipstick.
Child Resistant, indicates that a package will pass a test protocol administered by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.
The remove defective or damaged parts or articles from the production line.
Depressing a portion or portions of an item below the ordinary surface level, usually to form lettering or decoration. Sometimes the background rather than the lettering itself, leaving the letters at the original level.
Amount of mass per unit of volume of a substance, expressed in grams per cubic centimeter, pounds per cubic foot, etc. It measures how compact the mass in a substance or object is.
Any tool or arrangement of tools designed to cut, shape or otherwise form materials to a desired configuration.
Any operation in which a form that incorporates sharp cutting edges is pressed into a substrate to cut out a desired shape.
Open ended flexible plastic tube that attaches to the tank of a pump and extends into the product, creating a means for the product to be dispensed through the pump.
A special operation of an IS machine in which two gobs of glass are blown simultaneously into containers in a double cavity-type mold.
The measurement of the diameter across the root of the threads on a bottle finish.
The deposition of a thin layer or coating of metal on an object by passing an electric current through an aqueous solution of salt containing icons of the element being deposited. The material being plated constitutes the cathode. The anode is often composed of the metal being deposited; ideally, it dissolves as the process proceeds.
The creation of a design on a surface by causing letters, figures, patterns, etc. to be raised above the natural surface.
A process of impressing, cutting or etching a configuration into a plate.
Plastics based on resins made by the reaction of epoxides or oxiranes with other materials such as amines, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, acid anhydrides and unsaturated compounds.
To treat a material with an acid, leaving parts of the material that remain in relief to form the desired design.
A process for forming hollow narrow-mouthed bottles and similar hollow shapes. A cylindrical plastic material (the parison) is extruded and, while still in a hot pliable form, clamped between two mold cavity halves and then inflated to conform to the mold surfaces.
A condition of stress created by repeating flexing or impact force upon a material.
European equivalent of GCMI finish. The FEA standards provide technical standards developed by and within the European Aerosol Industry.
Metal or plastic ring (band) used to join two components together.
Distance as measured down from the open end of a container to the surface of the material filled into the container.
The level to which a container must be filled to furnish a designated quantity of the contents.
That portion of the neck of a glass or plastic container which carries the threads, lugs or friction fit members to which the closure is applied, and includes the sealing surface and sealing bead; generally, the whole portion above the transfer or pry-off bead. (The term finish in connection with glass containers is a holdover from earlier days before glass blowing became an automatic, mechanized operation. The neck of a container was the last part to be formed, hence the name finish.)
A device used as a part of a closure assembly to accomplish a certain purpose such as a dropper, sprinkler, powder shaker, etc.
Material which is capable or burning when in contact with flame, but not continuing to burn when the flame is removed.
A method of rendering inert thermoplastic objects receptive to inks, lacquers, paints, adhesives, etc. in which the object is bathed in an open flame to promote oxidation of the surface of the article.
The property of a material that will permit its being bent or twisted without breaking.
A term used to describe a glass color, which is perfectly clear and transparent.
A two-piece closure system where both pieces are typically attached by a living hinge. One half provides the threads for attachment to a bottle, tube or jar and an orifice for dispensing the product while the other half provides the closure mechanism, usually a pintel that snaps audibly into the orifice.
Any visible mark on a molded part, which indicates the direction that the liquefied resin, passes through in the cavity or the die.
Often similar to flow lines, these marks are slight imperfections to the surface of a molded part that are results of the passage of liquefied plastic through the mold cavity. Often exhibits a wavy surface appearance.
Glass Container Manufacturers Institute.
A homogeneous material with a random, liquidlike molecular structure. The manufacturing process requires that the raw material be heated to a temperature sufficient to produce a completely fused melt, which, when cooled rapidly, becomes rigid without crystallizing.
Four types of glass are specified by the U.S. Pharmacopeia on the basis of chemical durability tests. Type 1, 2 and 3 are intended for packaging parenteral preparations and Type NP for non-parenteral products.
Containers normally made of borosilicate glass having a highly resistant composition. This type is usually reserved for injectable products, particularly those that are alkaline in nature.
Containers made of commercial soda lime glass which may have been treated on the inside surface at a high temperature to obtain a great improvement in chemical resistance. The usual treatment de-alkalized the glass surface to a significant depth producing a chemical resistance similar to that of Type 1, and is known as sulphur treatment.
Untreated glass containers made of commercial soda-lime glass average or somewhat above average chemical resistance. The specification places a limit on the amount of alkaline material extracted in the Powdered Glass Test. This limit is, of course, much higher than that set for Type 1 ware.
Untreated glass containers made of ordinary soda-lime glass. The specification places a limit on the amount of alkaline material extracted in the Powdered Glass Test. The limit is higher than that set for Type 3 ware.
Glass containers are surface coated by the glass manufacturer to provide lubricity, so that containers can pass readily on conveying systems and will not cling to and scratch one another on contact.
Good Manufacturing Practices (as established by the FDA).
The controlled globule or mass of molten glass fed into the mold.
(1) on a threaded bottle neck (finish), the measurement from the top of the finish to the point where diameter "T" extended parallel to the centerline intersects the shoulder or bead. (2) the inside height of the closure, measured from the bottom of the closure in a line tangent to the threads of the closure and terminating at the inside top of the closure with liner removed.
The volume of empty space between the fill level of a container and the overflow capacity of the container.
A label applied to a container by transferring the label, preprinted on a substrate, to the container surface.
High Density Polyethylene.
The lower portion of a glass or plastic container starting with the bearing surface of the bottom and including a small portion of the lower wall.
Heavy glass on one side of the bottom of a glass bottle.
A seal that will exclude air and will be gas tight at normal temperatures and atmospheric pressures.
Printing method which consists in transferring a metal foil on the surface of the object thanks to a cliche and the action of heat.
A specified minimum dimension inside the bottle neck that will allow sufficient clearance for filler tubes to enter the bottle neck. What is INDUSTRIAL PACKAGING? Usually made up of large heavy units with no attempt to make them appealing to the eye.
A two-stage process where a preform or parison is injection molded. The bottle finish is formed at this time. The preform is then transferred to blow mold where the bottle takes its final shape.
A process whereby molten material is forced through a gate, under conditions of heat and pressure, into a closed mold cavity.
Items that are destined for a particular segment of society such as Medical Doctors, Veterinarians, Beauty Operators, or Mechanics. Attention is primarily given to protection of the item.
The threaded portion of the finish of a container, which has gaps or interruptions. Usually found at the parting line.
A flat place on a container where a label may be glued.
An oven used to anneal glass in order to reduce internal stress that would result from too rapid cooling.
Low Density Polyethylene.
A number that is assigned to a production batch so that all of a product's components can be traced.
Extensions around the circumference of a lid, which are crimped down to hold the lid securely in place against the body of a container.
A screw-type closure where the thread is interrupted rather than continuous. The closure is affected by a short camming action. One advantage is that application is very fast, since the closure needs only a few degrees of rotation. In contrast, a normal continuous thread closure might require 360 degrees or more rotation to effect a seal.
Applying a thin coating of metal to a non-metallic surface. May be done by chemical deposition or by exposing the surface to vaporized metal in a vacuum chamber.
A unit of measurement equivalent to 0.001 inch.
A term that designates the minimum thickness of the wall of a container.
(v.) To shape plastic parts or finished articles by heat and pressure. (n.) The cavity into which the plastic composition is placed and from which it takes form.
A set of iron forms that are fastened on a bottle machine to provide a means of shaping a glass container.
The part of the container where the bottle cross-section decreases to form the finish.
That part of the mold equipment, which forms the finish of a bottle.
The process where the ink is transferred from the plate to a blanket and from the blanket to the material to be printed. Commonly called offset.
An opaque, white glass used to make jars and bottles.
Descriptive of a material or substance, which will not transmit light.
Type of glass defect during manufacturing process of glass bottle: rough surface that resembles the texture of an orange.
The capacity of the container to the top of the finish or to the point of overflow.
Metal, usually aluminum, outer casing on a two-piece closure.
(a) A partially formed glass shape that will be blown into a glass container; (b) the extruded hot plastic tube that will be placed in a mold to be inflated into a bottle or other hollow form.
A polyester made from the combination of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid resulting in a good gas and water barrier.
An extrudable form of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
A form of polyethylene terephthalate, which has been copolymerized with glycol.
A thermosetting resin or plastic made by condensation of a phenol with an aldehyde and used especially for molding and insulating.
A cylinder that moves in a cylindrical vessel, which displaces or is displaced by a volume of fluid.
A filling machine in which the product is metered by drawing it into a cylinder of a set volume and then ejecting a measured amount into a container.
A fitment that is pressed into a bottle neck opening to close off or reduce the passage.
A plastic or resin prepared by the polymerization of propylene as the sole monomer.
A thermoplastic material derived from the polymerization of styrene.
A bottle finish having uniform undercut lips as a dealing surface. Designed to facilitate pouring without dripping.
A simplified mold construction often made from a light-casting alloy or from epoxy resin in order to obtain information for the final mold or part design.
Polyvinyl Chloride. Commonly used for blister packaging of solid and liquid dose products.
A small depressed cavity (detent) in the base of the bottle to act as a guide in positioning the bottle in the decorating machine for application of decoration.
The ability to capture, reprocess and reuse primary material used in the production of an item.
A condition of correct alignment of one part or operation with another part or operation.
The amount of rotational force required to remove a closure from a container.
A bottle with a deformed bottom, causing rocking of the bottle in the upright position.
That part of a roll-on package into which the roll ball snaps.
A bead of material which is molded onto the top of the land area completely around the top of the neck finish in order to further enhance the sealing capabilities of the component.
Perforated top on a container or fitment designed to dispense contents.
A printing process that uses a stencil and a mesh screen to create the design. The ink is fired to adhere to the glass. Multicolor work requires multiple screens and impressions.
Stock Keeping Unit.
Society of the Plastic Industry.
A restricted orifice molded into the finish of a glass bottle.
The period of time during which a product can be stored under specified temperature conditions and remain suitable for use. Storage life is sometimes called shelf life.
The outside diameter of the threaded portion of a container finish.
It is a package having one or more indicators or barriers to entry. It provides safety to consumers.
Minimum/maximum range of measurement.
Force in a circular motion as applied to closure on a container, either to attach or remove the closure.
A projecting bead or ring on the outer surface of some glass containers, usually just below the finish, to provide a surface of engagement for the jaws of handling devices during manufacture.
A mold with only one cavity, usually a pilot for the production set of molds.
A 10-digit number, which uniquely identifies products. The first 5 digits identifies the manufacturer and the second 5 digits identifies the item.
Resins made through the condensation of urea and aldehydes.
United States Pharmacopoeia (a non-governmental, non-profit, scientific body that establishes drug standards in the United States).
A process, which uses UV light wavelengths instead of heat to cause the cross-linking of an ink or coating.
A forming process in which a heated sheet of plastic is molded by causing it to flow by reducing air pressure on one side of the sheet.
Glass or plastic container filled with product.
That property of material by virtue of which it tends to resist deformation of flow.
Changes on the surface of glass caused by chemical reaction with the environment.